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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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200 achievements of Modi Govt

  1. Fragile five to Fastest growing economy - India
  2. 11th largest to the 5th largest economy - India
  3. Share of world GDP from 2.43% in 2014 to 3.08% in 2018
  4. Average GDP 7.3% against 6.7% in previous regime
  5. Forex reserves from 300 bn USD in 2014 to 420 bn USD in 2018
  6. Doubling of FDI inflow from 36 bn USD in 2014 to 66 billion USD in 2018
  7. Inflation less than 2.3 % (Nov 18) against 10.1% in 2014
  8. Growth of sensex from 24,121.74 in 2014 to 36,395.03 on 12 Feb 19 (50.88%)
  9. Fiscal deficit under control
  10. Per capita income increased by 45% from Rs 86,647 in 2014 to Rs 1,25,397
  11. IT exemption from 2 lakh in 2014 to 5 lakh (effectively 9.85 lakh with home loan)
  12. Restaurant bills tax reduced from 18% in 2014 to 5%
  13. Transaction charges through card down from 1% to 0%, domestic money transfer fee down from Rs 5 in 2014 to zero
  14. Financial inclusion (32 crore bank accounts with 260 billion worth deposits). Almost 100% coverage from earlier 50%
  15. DBT (savings of 83000 crores @ 15000 crore annually), No of govt schemes DBT applied to increased from 34 in 2014 to 433, 2.7 lakh fake mid-day meal students, 3.3 crore fake LPG connections, 87 lakh fake MNREGA job cards, 3 crore fake ration cards eliminated
  16. Zero IT for businesses with turnover upto 60 lakhs
  17. GST exemplifying cooperative federalism, rates of 83 items down from pre-GST rates, out of 1211 items only 35 items in above 18% slab, 39% reduction of cost of basic household items. Average 1 lk crore monthly revenue through GST collection. Exempted for business upto 40 lk
  18. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, constitution of NCLT, 3 lakh crores of NPAs recovered, 66 cases resolved, 260 cases liquidated, resolution of stressed assets, 2100 companies pay back 83000 crore to banks settling their pending loan repayments
  19. 75 billion $ or Yen to Rupee exchange agreement with Japan
  20. 1 lakh shell companies deregistered, FCRA licenses of 4800 NGOs cancelled
  21. Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, properties of economic fugitives seized and auctioned
  22. 1.9 lakh km of rural roads. Rural road connectivity at 91% from 55%
  23. 36 new airports, from 65 in 7 decades to 106, all states now in air connectivity map
  24. Effective international diplomacy following 59 visits to nations, 38 single, 10 double, 3 triple and 2 quadruple visits by PM.(Seen during Airstrikes,No Country opposed India)
  25. Benami Act for action against Money Laundering
  26. Rural sanitation coverage 95 % up from 39% (8.8 crore toilets)
  27. Solar energy capacity increased 8 fold from 2.63 GW to 22 GW, 19. 8.5 GW of biogas grid installed.
  28. Ganga waterway transportation, usage by shipping giant Maersk, cost of transportation reduced from 10/ton (road) / Rs 6/ton (rail) to Re 1/ton
  29. More than 2.4 crore households lit up, rural electricity coverage to households up from 70 to 95%, only 19836 homes remain (in Chhatisgarh) out of 2,48,09,235
  30. Electricity accessibility rank jump from 99 in 2014 to 26 in 2019
  31. 7 crore new gas connections to 3.5 crore households u/69000 conections per day, coverage 90% from 55%, 82% return for refill, 42% beneficiaries Dalits
  32. 14.4 crore mudra loans worth Rs 7 lakh crore disbursed
  33. 18000 remote villages connected with electricity
  34. 2.92 lakh km of optical fibre laid, 0.02% to 50% gram Panchayat connectivity
  35. Swachh bharat mission has saved, according to WHO, 3 lakh lives and will save 1.5 lakh lives per year.
  36. IT filers increase from 3.79 crore to 6.08 crore, enterprises registered for indirect tax up from 64 lk to 118 lakh
  37. Entry of India in global regimes Missile Technology Control regime (MTCR), WA (Wassenaar Arrangement) and Australia Group
  38. 17 crore soil health cards
  39. 1.5 crore houses built, 91.37 crore in rural areas and 13.5 lakh in urban areas against 25 lakh houses built between 2010-2014. House for all target year is 2022.
  40. 1,78,346 houses built in NE over existing 2875 houses built till 2014
  41. Home loan interest rate down from 10.3 % in 2014 to 8.4% in 2018, annual savings of Rs 47,160 for 30 lakhs over 30 years, no GST on affordable housing, 5% on remaining
  42. Trading agreement in rupee with Iran and UAE
  43. Common service centres up from 84k to 3 Lakh
  44. OROP implemented after 43 years, 35000 crores disbursed to 8 crore veterans
  45. India's vaccination programme Indradhanush amongst 12 best practices of world
  46. 5035 Jan Aushadhi and - 1054 medicines under price control (60-90% discounts).
  47. More than 150 Amrit stores, reduction of cost of cromium cobalt Knee implant from 1.58-2.5 lakh to 54,720 and high flex implant from Rs181728 to 56490 (69%), 85% reduction in cardiac stent price to Rs 28000
  48. 87% reduction in 400 cancer drugs
  49. Rate of Interest on higher education loans dropped from 14.75 in 2013 to 10.88% in 2019, savings of 1.18 lakh on 10 lakh loan over tenure of 60 months, Rs 2000 savings on EMI
  50. Data revolution: Cost of 1 GB $0.26 in India against $12.37 in US, $6.66 in UK and $75.2 in Zimbabwe. Unlimited mobile+ 45 Gb data = Rs 150 against Rs 1000 in 2013; annual savings of 10,200
  51. Katra rail line work completed after 16 years
  52. Dhola Sadiya bridge work completed after 16 years
  53. Sardar Sarovar Dam work completed after 15 years
  54. Aadhaar act
  55. Pakyong airport completed after 10 years
  56. Chennai Nashri Tunnel after 10 years
  57. Assam NRC after 40 years
  58. National War Memorial after 50 years
  59. NE cpas after 60 years
  60. Kollam bypass after 43 years
  61. Indo-Bangladesh enclaves after 42 years
  62. Bansagar canal project after 40 years
  63. Bogibeel bridge after 23 years
  64. Western peri expressway after 15 years
  65. Kota Chambal bridge after 11 years
  66. Maibang-Lumding Stretch completed
  67. Delhi Meerut Expressway completed
  68. Ganga Expressway project (world's longest) underway
  69. Metros in Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow, Washermenpet
  70. All umanned level crossings eliminated
  71. Ayushman Bharat: annual 5 lakh health care to every family, 15.05 lakh hospital admissions for secondary/ tertiary treatment, 2.4 crore e-cards generated as on 10 Mar 19 in 170 days. Target 50 crore people.
  72. 59minutes loan portal: 92,000 loan applications of MSME amounting to 30,000 crores approved, 6000 crores sanctioned till Nov 18
  73. 87% of farming house (owning land of 2 hctrs) or 12 cr ppl to get kisaan sammaan nidhi of Rs 6000 pr year. Rs 5215 cr transferred directly to 2.6 crore farmers in 37 days (for households with holding less than 0.01 hectares incm per month so far was Rs 8136 agnst exp of 6594
  74. 1.5 million electric rickshaws
  75. Procurement of 36 Rafale on Government to Government Basis avoiding middlemen
  76. 05 billion$ S 400 Triumf air defence missile system deal with Russia
  77. 145 M777 howitzer deal
  78. 22 Apache AH 64E multi-role combat helos
  79. 200 KA-226T helicopters
  80. 56 EADS CASA C-295 transport aircraft
  81. 15 CH 47 Chinook tactical transport helicopters
  82. 2.3 lakh Bullet proof jackets
  83. 1.6 lakh Bullet-proof helmets
  84. 777 mn USD Barak 8 LRSAM contract
  85. 5 bn USD S-400 air defence systems
  86. 10 Heron TP armed drones
  87. 4 additional P8I MR aircraft
  88. 40 units of Laser sensor border fence installed
  89. 72,400 Sig Sauer Assault rifles
  90. 100 self-propelled K9 Vajra howitzers
  91. 700000 AK-103 Kalashnikov assault rifles indigenous facility
  92. Surgical strikes in Myanmar, across LoC and in Pakistan. Only Country to bomb a Nuclear Powered Country
  93. 240 million visitors at Kumbh Mela 2019, cost 4236 crores @ Rs 177 per tourist, revenue 1.2 Lakh crores
  94. 833 teraflop supercomputer Param Shivay by IIT BHU at Rs 32.5 crores
  95. Divisional status to Ladakh
  96. 470 bed ESIC hospital in Ennore
  97. 100 bed ESIC hospital in Tiruppur
  98. Namami Gange - Ganga is 30% cleaner, 83 out of 97 ganga towns and 4456 villages achieved ODF status, 08 out of 16 drains emptying 16 crore l sewage into Ganga tapped. Target date Mar 2020
  99. 5,45,122 ODF villages, 598 ODF districts, 27 ODF states/ villages
  100. RERA implementation
  101. Udaan scheme - flight cost down from Rs 5000/1000 km in 2013 to 3400/1000 km in 2018, 34 airports operationalised, small towns connected, all states on aerial
  102. Preventive conservation of 39275570 folios, curative conservation of 3656863 filios, digitisation of 2.83 lakh manuscripts consisting of 2.93 crore pages
  103. India is now world's largest 2-wheeler manufacturer, 2nd largest smartphone manufacturer (94% of mobiles sold now made in India), 4th largest automaker, 2nd largest steel producer
  104. 5100 m Mandvi Bridge in Goa in 3.5 years
  105. Ease of doing Business ranking jump from 134 in 2014 to 77 in 2019
  106. Therubali - Singapur Bridge No 588
  107. Restoration of Asurgarh Fort, Kalahandi
  108. GeM portal with 731431 product categories, 180,862 registered sellers and 32114 govt buyers
  109. 10% EWS reservation
  110. 40% of ongoing 700 NH projects completed, adding 40,039 km between 2014-18 against 91,287 km between 1947-2014
  111. Highway construction rate jumped from 12 km/day in 2014 to 27 km/day in 2019
  112. 101 terrorists and 11 offenders extradited
  113. 90,000 ex-partite Indians evacuated
  114. Chabahar port, Sittwe port and Duqm port
  115. Military installation in Seychelles
  116. International logistics agreements with US, France and Singapore
  117. Work underway on 25 MLD ZLD Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Gujarat Eco Textile Park and will save 25 million litres of water per day
  118. Beautification of 65 railway stations, all stations fitted with LED lights, wi-fi, multi-brand food centres, kiosks, executive lounges, lifts (445 from 97 in 2014), escalators (603 from 199 in 2014), travellators and ramps
  119. Record number of foot over bridges built
  120. 871 new train services
  121. 180 new rail lines
  122. Dedicated railway freight corridor - 2 sections completed
  123. 100% electrification of railways underway, first solar powered railway station (Guwahati). First solar powered train (world's second), savings of Rs 40 Lakhs and 90,000 ltrs diesel per year
  124. Make in India semi-high-speed trains - Tejas, Gatiman and Vande Bharat
  125. Humsafar and Antodaya trains, Deen Dayalu and Anubhuti coaches, UDAY double decker, glass dome Vistadome coaches
  126. Project Swarn and Project Utkrisht to upgrade Rajdhani/Shatabdi and Mail/Express respectively
  127. Largest coach production in world at ICF, Chennai
  128. No more human extreta on railway tracks. Installation of 1.37 lakh out of 2.5 lakh completed in Jun 18.
  129. 400 wi-fi railway stations (Aug 18)
  130. 80% reduction in rail accidents
  131. 10 high speed rail corridors underway, target date 2025-26
  132. Export of world class customised coaches from MCF, Rae Bareli
  133. LIC and Air India register profit
  134. 2300 km rail tracks constructed, speed jumped from 4.1 km/day in 2014 to 6.53 km/day in 2018
  135. Neem coating of urea
  136. Gokul mission - record 160 million ton milk production
  137. Online availability of CBSE and NCERT books
  138. 10 crore LED bulbs distributed, 5000 crore savings
  139. Investment in urban infrastructure jumped from 157703 crores to 795500 crores
  140. Statue of Unity to commemorate Iron Man of India
  141. Rs 2509 crore sales in Khadi
  142. 482.36 million digital transactions worth Rs 74,978 crores in Oct 2018 against 0.3 million transactions worth Rs 90 crores in Nov 2016
  143. 30% increase in ATMs, 208% increase of PoS machines from 10.81 lakh in May 14 to 33.32 lakh in Aug 18, 111% increase in credit cards from 1.94 crore in May 14 to 4.10 crore in Aug 18, 144% increase in debit cards from 40.17 crore to 98.02 crore
  144. Ease of Doing Business Index 142 (2014) to 100 (2018)
  145. Ease of getting electricity index 99 (2014) to 26 (2018)
  146. UN's e-govt index 118 (2014) to 97(2018)
  147. Globalisation index 112 to 107 (2018)
  148. Innovation index 76 to 60 (2018)
  149. Competitiveness index 71 to 39
  150. Logistics performance index 54 to 35
  151. Global peace index 141 to 137
  152. DBR ranking 100 to 77
  153. India ranks 3rd in global start up ecosystem
  154. 06 crore jobs in MSME sector based on CII data
  155. 448 million formal jobs based on EPFO, NPS and PPF data
  156. 10 crore jobs in entrepreneurship via mudra and other schemes
  157. 80% increase in tax payers, 51.3 % increase in gross tax revenue
  158. Black Money report card - Voluntary income declaration scheme (Rs 65250 crore), IT search and survey operations (35,460 crore), Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana(5000 crore), Benami transactions Act (4300 crore), Black Money and Imposition of Tax Act (4100 crore)
160 Rs 6000 financial assiatence for pregnant women
161/1 . Sagarmala: port capacity increase from 8 to 14.7 lakh ton, cargo up from 89 to 116 MMT 8 new national waterways including ganga waterway NW-1 and Brahmaputra waterway NW-2.
161/2. domestic cruise service between Mumbai and Goa, ro-ro services on Ghoga-Dahej reducing travel distance from 294 to 31 km
161/3. New international cruise terminals at Chennai and Goa, railway line between Haridaspur and Paradip underway, LNG import terminal at Kamarajar port, Oil berth ai Jawahar Dweep,Coal berth at Mangalore port
161/4 . deep draft Iron ore berth at Paradip berth, JNPT SEZ, Kandla and Paradip smart industrial port city, largest dry dock and international ship repair facility at CSL, modernisation of 17 fishing harbours
  1. 800 km Delhi-Mumbai Expressway underway
  2. Replacement of bio-toilets with upgraded vacuum bio toilets in trains underway. Order for 500 placed on experimental basis.
  3. No terror strikes in hinterland
  4. 103 new KVs
  5. 62 new Navodaya Vidyalayas
  6. 6 new IITs against 16 in previous 57 years
  7. 6 new IIMs against 13 in previous 57 years
  8. 7 IIITs against 7 in previous 57 years
  9. 02 new IISER
  10. 12 new AIIMS against 7 in previous 57 years.
  11. 141 new universities against 30 in previous 57 years
  12. 01 new NIT
  13. Life Insurances @ Rs 12 annual and @ Rs 12 monthly premiums
  14. Atal Pension Yojana
  15. Pension to 42 crore people of unorganised sector
  16. Ambedkar memorial
  17. BHIM application for digital payments
  18. Khelo India Initiative for tracking of athletes' development, Rs 5 lk per annum scholarship for 1000 budding athletes per year for eight years each; monthly Rs 50000 out-of -pocket exptr, 2000 PETs, salary cap of coaches doubled from Rs 1-2 lk per month, target 15 yrs
  19. Special Task Force for Olympics
  20. RERA Act
  21. Bullet train maiden project
182/1. Rs 6.92 lakh crore Bharatmala project, 44 economic corridors with 9000 km road, 2000 km port connectivity, 9000km roads to connect district HQs with NH,
182/2. 2000 km road with Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, opening up of 185 choke points, road development to char dham, 12 greenfield expressways spanning 1900 km
  1. 36 murtis retrieved and brought back to India in 2014-2019 under India Pride Project against 02 between 2000-2013, 02 in 90s, 03 in 80s, 01 in 70s and nil in 50s and 60s
  2. Unemployment rate 3.8% against 13.8 % in 2013
  3. India is a less-cash society now
  4. Develpment of Trincomalee and Columbo port while checkmating China's Hambantota by taking operations of near by (15 km away) Mattala Rajapaksha International Airport
  5. Plugging the 'double taxation avoidance' black money loophole through a new tax agreement with Mauritius
  6. Deal with Switzerland for automatic tax data sharing from 01 Jan 2019
189/1 Varanasi - Varanasi ring road phase 1 completed, phase 2 underway, inland waterways terminal, Babatpur airport highway, 140 MLD Dinaput STP, facelift to railway station, big cow shelter for stray cattle, BPO centre, piped gas project, Varanasi-Balia rail project,
189/2. Vande Bharat Express, Kashi Vishwanath temple - Ganga Ghat corridor project, renovation of all bathings ghats, LED illuminations of ghats and major roads, underground electricity cabling,
189/3. new sewage plants, 02 cancer treatment facilities, 65th to 29th rank in swachhata sarvekshan (2016), 90% ODF district.
  1. Creation of 100 Smart cities, 100 crore per year per city for 05 years, 500 acres for retrofitting, 50 acres for redevelopment, 250 acres for green field projects, 10% of energy from renewable resources, 80% of green building construction, special purpose vehicles.
191/1 Development of 500 AMRUT cities underway, urbanization project of rejuvenation and transformation which includes beach front development, prevention of beach erosion, improvement of water supply, replacement of pipelines,
191/2. New sewerage connections, greenery and open spaces, digital and smart facilities, e-governance, LED streetlights, public transport, storm water drainage projects in a phased manner, Target date 2022
  1. Increase in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in 104 BBBP (Beti Bachao Beti Padhao) districts, anti-natal care registration in 119 districts and institutional deliveries in 146 out of total 640 districts as in Mar 18. CSR of Haryana increased from 871 to 914.
  2. International Yoga Day
  3. Aspirational Districts Programme: 115 'backward' districts placed under 'prabharis' and for competitive development on the basis of 49 performance indicators, target year 2022.
195/1. Make in India: 16.4 lakh crore investment committments, 1.5 lakh crore investment inquiries, 60 bn USD FDI, 26 sectors covered, 23 positions jump in World Bank's Doing Business Report (DBR), 32 places in WEF's Global Competitiveness Index (GCI),
195/2 19 places in Logistics Performance Index, 42 places in Ease of Doing Business index, schemes include Bharatmala, Sagarmala, dedicate freight corridors, industrial corridors, UDAN-RCS, Bharat Broadband Network, Digital India.
  1. 251 Passport Seva Kendras (PSKs) and Post Office Passport Seva kendras (POPSKs) against 77 till 2014, target of one PSK every 50 km across India.
  2. Unanimous election of Justice Dalveer Bhandari to ICJ forcing UK to pull out own nominee Christopher Greenwood, demonstrating India's clout in international arena.
  3. India Post Payments Bank: India's biggest banking outreach with 1.55 lakh post offices (2.5 times banking network) linked to IPPB system
  4. Philip Kotler award, Seoul Peace prize, Champion of the Earth Award, Grand Collar of the State of Palestine, Amir Abdulla Khan Award, King Abdulaziz Sash award, Amir Amanullah Khan award.
  5. 1900 gifts and memorabilia received by Modi auctioned and 11.7 crores added to Namami Gange fund, 1.4 c of Seoul Peace award also to Nammami Gange.
New Adds
  1. Removal of article 370 and thereby also 35a after several decades.
  2. Giving citizenship to persecuted minorities in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan through passing of CAA.
  3. Trust for creation of Ram Mandir underway.
  4. Abolishment of Haj subsidy.
  5. Abolishment and criminalization of instant triple talak.
  6. Deal with Bodo community.
  7. Getting Maulana Masood Azhar listed as an UN designated terrorist.

Source - https://www.reddit.com/IndiaRWResources/comments/bgkus6/200_achievements_of_modi_govt/

List more achievements in the comment section and lets make the list bigger, a big thank you to our fallen kar sevak u/Alive_Firefighter
submitted by justchillar to Chodi [link] [comments]

Immediate Aftermath : The more data we collect and analyze, the clearer the picture becomes.

This is the updated first part of the list that has recorded the notable events as the world deals with the COVID-19 pandemic. [2nd Part] ― The LINKS to events and sources are placed throughout the timeline.
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The More Data We Collect and Analyze, the Clearer the Picture Becomes.
Someone threw a stone in a pond a long way away. And we're only just feeling the ripples. — Fukuhara from Giri/Haji, Netflix series
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On Jan 30, Italian PM announced that Italy had blocked all flights to and from China. While Italy has banned people from air-travelling to China, however according to IATA data, there's no measurement implemented for air-travellers from China into Italy till the Mar 07. Especially for Chinese people who have EU passports.
On Jan 31, the US announced the category-I travel restrictions, barring all foreigners who have been in China for the past 14 days, with measures including the refusal of visas and mandatory quarantine.
• "Because the US focused on China and didn't expect the infected people's entry from Europe and the Middle East, the Maginot Line was breached from behind. And so little of credible data at the beginning made the US government to miscalculate its strategic response to the virus." — Dr. Zhang Lun, currently a visiting scholar at Harvard (economics & sociology), during the interview with ICPC on Mar 29.
Also on Jan 31, the WHO changed its tune and declared the coronavirus outbreak a Global Public Health Emergency of international concern (PHEIC).
Decisions on a PHEIC always involve politics .... West African countries discouraged a declaration in 2014 after they were hit by the largest Ebola virus outbreak on record, mainly because of concern about the economic impact.
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On Feb 02, regarding the US category-I travel restrictions, Kamala Harris, the former Democratic presidential candidate, declared on Twitter:
Since 2017, Trump’s travel bans have never been rooted in national security—they’re about discriminating against people of color. They are, without a doubt, rooted in anti-immigrant, white supremacist ideologies. This travel ban is no different.
On Feb 03, criticizing Trump for his travel restrictions continues. Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying (华春莹), a Peking University professors James Liang (梁建章), New York Times, the Nation, OBSERVER, the Boston Globe, Yahoo, and Daily Kos were saying,
it's a "panicky" decision and "racist" or it's "cruel and callous," he's stoking fear for political gains, and the president is "inappropriately overreacting." And professors Liang even said the US ban "will hurt goodwill and cooperation [with China] in the future." [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Also on Feb 03, Mr. Tedros of the WHO said there's no need for travel ban measure that "unnecessarily interfere with international travel and trade" trying to halt the spread of the virus.
China's delegate took the floor ... and denounced measures by "some countries" that have denied entry to people holding passports issued in Hubei province - at the centre of the outbreak - and to deny visas and cancel flights.
Also on Feb 03, China is expected to gradually implement a larger stimulus packages (in total) than a USD $572 billion from 2008. — We'd never find out but my guess is that the fund will probably go to Shanghai clique.
On Feb 04, The FDA has given emergency authorization to a new test kit by the CDC that promises to help public health labs meet a potential surge in cases.
The speed ... pushing through a new diagnostic test shows just how seriously they’re taking the potentially pandemic threat of 2019-nCoV. It’s also a sign that the world is starting to learn how to deal with an onslaught of new pathogens.
Also on Feb 04, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS, Chief Chen Wei belongs to) have jointly applied to patent the use of Remdesivir. Scientists from both institutes said in a paper published in Nature’s Cell Research that they found both Remdesivir and Chloroquine to be an effective way to inhibit the coronavirus.
On Feb 06, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington-based research & analysis unit, noted that with State Council of PRC praising his performance of containing the pandemic situation, the council expanded Li Keqiang's political control over Politburo Standing Committee of CCP. (Li Keqiang = Communist Youth League = Shanghai clique)
Also, on Feb 06, as the US evacuation planes leave China, the wave of the US evacuees have arrived who are met by the CDC personnel at the quarantine sites for screening, and those who were suspected of infection will be placed under quarantine for 14 days.
Also, on Feb 06, a CDC-developed lab test kit to detect the new coronavirus began shipping to qualified US laboratories and international ones. — However, on Feb 12, the CDC said some of the testing kits have flaws and do not work properly. The CDC finally ended up shipping the working test kits for mass testings on Feb 27. This was three weeks later than originally planned.
On Feb 07, China National Petroleum has recently declared Force Majeure on gas imports. They are trying to create a breathing room for their foreign exchange reserves shortage. China's foreign exchange reserves fell to mere USD $3.1 trillion in Oct. 2019.
On the same day, Bloomberg reported that PetroChina has directed employees in 20 countries to buy N95 face masks and send them home in China. The goal is to get 2 million masks shipped back. You can also find YouTube videos that show Overseas Chinese are scouring the masks at the Home Depot to ship them to China (the video in Korean). Also Chris Smith is pissed.
On Feb 09, Trump renews his national emergency on its southern border, and Elizabeth Goitein from the Brennan Center for Justice, published an opinion article on New York Times titled "Trump Has Abused This Power. And He Will Again if He’s Not Stopped."
On Feb 10, Dr. Tedros said that an advance three-person team of the WHO arrived in Beijing for a joint mission to discuss with Chinese officials the agenda and questions. Then, the joint mission of about 10 international experts will soon follow, he said. — Those WHO experts ended up visiting Chinese epicentre for the first time on Feb 24.
On Feb 12, the US targets Russian oil company for helping Venezuela skirt sanctions. The US admin seemingly tried to secure leverage against Russia after noticing something suspicious was up.
On the same day, Trump told Reuters "I hope this outbreak or this event (for the US) may be over in something like April." — Dr. Zhong Nanshan (钟南山), China's top tier SARS-hero doctor, also said "the peak of the virus (for China) should come in mid to late February, followed by a plateau or decrease," adding that his forecast was based on on mathematical modelling and data from recent events and government action.
On Feb 13, Tom Frieden who is a former US CDC chief and currently the head of public health nonprofit Resolve to Save Lives, said:
As countries are trying to develop their own control strategies, they are looking for evidence of whether the situation in China is getting worse or better. [But] We still don't have very basic information. [since the WHO just entered China] We hope that information will be coming out.
On the same day, the CDC reports that the 15th case in the US was confirmed. The patient was a part of group who were under a federal quarantine order at the JBSA-Lackland base because of a recent trip to Hubei Province, China.
By Feb 13, China hasn't accepted the US CDC's offer to send top experts, and they haven't released the "disaggregated" data (specific figures broken out from the overall numbers) even though repeatedly been asked.
On Feb 14, CCP's United Front posted an article on its official website, saying (Eng. text by Google Translation):
Fast! There is no time difference to raise urgently needed materials! Some Overseas Chinese have used their professions in the field of medicine in order to purchase relevant materials Hubei province in short of supply (to send them to China). .... Some Overseas Chinese took advantage of the connection resources, opened green transportation channels through our embassies and consulates abroad, and their related enterprises, and quickly sent large quantities of medical supplies (to China), making this love relay link and cooperation seamless.
On Feb 18, Reuters reports that 3M is on the list of firms eligible for China loans to ease coronavirus crisis.
There is no indication from the list that loans offered will necessarily be sought, or that such firms are in any financial need. The Bank of Shanghai told Reuters it will lend 5.5 billion yuan ($786 million) to 57 firms on its list.
On Feb 21, Xi Jinping writes a thank-you letter to Bill Gates for his foundation’s support to China regarding COVID-19 outbreak.
On Feb 24, China was rumoured on Twitter to delay the phase one trade deal implementation indefinitely which includes the increase of China's purchasing American products & services by at least $200 billion over the next two years.
Also on Feb 24, S&P 500 Index started to drop. Opened with 3225.9 and closed 3128.2. By the Mar 23, it dropped to 2208.9.
Also on Feb 24, China's National Health Commission says the WHO experts have visited Wuhan city for the first time, the locked-down central Chinese city at the epicentre, inspecting two hospitals and a makeshift one at a sports centre.
On Feb 26, IF the picture that has been circulated on Twitter were real, then chief Chen Wei and her team have developed the first batch of COVID-19 vaccine within time frame of a month.
On the same day, the CDC's latest figures displays 59 people in the US who have tested positive for COVID-19.
Also on Feb 26, the Washington Post published an article that says:
.... the WHO said it has repeatedly asked Chinese officials for "disaggregated" data — meaning specific figures broken out from the overall numbers — that could shed light on hospital transmission and help assess the level of risk front-line workers face. "We received disaggregated information at intervals, though not details about health care workers," said Tarik Jasarevic of the WHO. — The comment, in an email on Feb 22 to the Post, was one of the first instances that the WHO had directly addressed shortcomings in China's reporting or handling of the coronavirus crisis.
On Feb 27, after missteps, the CDC says its test kit is ready and the US started to expand testing.
On Feb 28, China transferred more than 80,000 Uighurs to factories used by global brands such as Apple, Nike, & Volkswagen & among others.
Also on Feb 28, the WHO published the official report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019. (PDF)
On Feb 29, quoting Caixin media's investigation published on the same day, Lianhe Zaobao, the largest Singapore-based Chinese-language newspaper, published an article reporting the following:
Dr. Li Wenliang said in the interview with Caixin media; [in Dec 2019] another doctor (later turned out to be Dr. Ai Fen) examined and tried to treat a patient who exhibited SARS-like symptoms which akin to influenza resistant to conventional treatment methods. And "the family members who took care of her (the patient) that night also had a fever, and her other daughter also had a fever. This is obviously from person to person" Dr. Li said in the interview."
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On Mar 01, China's State Council super tighten up their already draconian internet law.
On the same day, Princelings published an propaganda called "A Battle Against Epidemic: China Combating COVID-19 in 2020" which compiles numerous state media accounts on the heroic leadership of Xi Jinping, the vital role of the Communist Party, and the superiority of the Chinese system in fighting the virus.
Starting on Mar 03, the US Fed has taken two significant measures to provide monetary stimulus. It's going to be no use as if a group of people with serious means are manipulating the markets to make sure MM will have liquidity concerns when they need it most.
On Mar 04, Xinhua News, China's official state-run press agency posted an article "Be bold: the world should thank China" which states that
If China retaliates against the US at this time, it will also announce strategic control over medical products, and ban exports of said products to the US. ... If China declares today that its drugs are for domestic use only, the US will fall into the hell of new coronavirus epidemic.
On Mar 05, Shanghai Index has recovered the coronavirus loss almost completely.
On Mar 07, Saudi's Ahmed bin Abdulaziz and Muhammad bin Nayef were arrested on the claims of plotting to overthrow King Salman. — Ahmed bin Abdulaziz is known to have very tight investment-interest relationship with Bill Gates, Bill Browder, Blackstone, & BlackRock: One common factor that connects these people is China.
On Mar 08, the Russia–Saudi oil price war has begun. The ostensible reason was simple: China, the biggest importer of oil from Saudi and Russia, was turning back tankers while claiming that the outbreak forced its economy to a standstill.
On Mar 10, the Washington Post published the article saying that the trade group for manufacturers of personal protective equipment urged in 2009 "immediate action" to restock the national stockpile including N95 masks, but it hasn't been replenished since.
On Mar 11, the gentleman at the WHO declares the coronavirus outbreak a "Global Pandemic." He called on governments to change the course of the outbreak by taking "urgent and aggressive action." This was a full twelve days after the organization published the official report regarding the situation in China.
On Mar 13, the US admin declared a National Emergency and announced the plan to release $50 billion in federal resources amid COVID-19.
Also on Mar 13, China's Ministry of Commerce states that China is now the best region for global investment hedging.
On Mar 15, Business Insider reports that Trump tried to poach German scientists working on a coronavirus vaccine and offered cash so it would be exclusive to the US. The problem is the official CureVac (the German company) twitter account, on Mar 16, 2020, tweeted the following:
To make it clear again on coronavirus: CureVac has not received from the US government or related entities an offer before, during and since the Task Force meeting in the White House on March 2. CureVac rejects all allegations from press.
On Mar 16, the fan club of European globalists has published a piece titled, "China and Coronavirus: From Home-Made Disaster to Global Mega-Opportunity." The piece says:
The Chinese method is the only method that has proved successful [in fighting the virus], is a message spread online in China by influencers, including many essentially promoting propaganda. ... it is certainly a message that seems to be resonating with opinion leaders around the world.
On the same day, unlike China that had one epicentre, Wuhan city, the US now overtakes China with most cases reporting multiple epicentres simultaneously.
Also on Mar 16, the US stocks ended sharply lower with the Dow posting its worst point drop in history. But some showed a faint hint of uncertain hope.
On Mar 17, according to an article on Chinese version of Quora, Zhihu, chief Chen Wei and her team with CanSino Biologics officially initiated a Phase-1 clinical trial for COVID-19 vaccine at the Wuhan lab, Hubei China, which Bloomberg News confirmed. — Click HERE, then set its time period as 1 year, and see when the graph has started to move up.
Also on Mar 17, China's state media, China Global TV Network (CGTN), has produced YouTube videos for Middle Eastern audiences to spread the opinion that the US has engineered COVID-19 events.
Also on Mar 17, Al Jazeera reported that the US President has been criticized for repeatedly referring to the coronavirus as the "Chinese Virus" as critics saying Trump is "fueling bigotry."
• China's Xinhua News tweeted "Racism is not the right tool to cover your own incompetence."
• Tucker Carlson asked: "Why would America's media take China's side amid coronavirus pandemic?"
• Also, Mr. Bill Gates: "We should not call this the Chinese virus."
On Mar 19, for the first time, China reports zero local infections.
Also on Mar 19, Al Jazeera published an analysis report, titled "Coronavirus erodes Trump's re-election prospects."
On Mar 22, Bloomberg reports that China's mobile carriers lost 21 million users during this pandemic event. It's said to be the first net decline since starting to report monthly data in 2000.
On Mar 26, EURACTV reports that China cashes in off coronavirus, selling Spain $466 million in supplies. However, Spain returns 9,000 "quick result" test kits to China, because they were deemed substandard. — Especially the sensibility of the test was around 30 percent, when it should be higher than 80 percent.
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On Apr 03, Germany and other governments are bolstering corporate defenses to address worries that coronavirus-weakened companies could be easy prey for bargain hunting by China's state owned businesses.
On Apr 05, New York Times says "Trump Again Promotes Use of Unproven Anti-Malaria Drug (hydroxychloroquine)."
On Apr 06, a Democratic State Rep. Karen Whitsett from Detroit credits hydroxychloroquine and President Trump for "saving her in her battle with the coronavirus."
On Apr 07, the US CDC removed the following part from its website.
Although optimal dosing and duration of hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 are unknown, some U.S. clinicians have reported anecdotally different hydroxychloroquine dosing such as: 400mg BID on day one, then daily for 5 days; 400 mg BID on day one, then 200mg BID for 4 days; 600 mg BID on day one, then 400mg daily on days 2-5.
------------------------
☞ If there were ever a time for people not to be partisan and tribal, the time has come: We need to be ever vigilant and attentive to all kinds of disinformation & misinformation to see it better as well as to be sharp in our lives. — We really do need to come together.
☞ At first, I was going to draw up a conspiracy theory-oriented list focused on Team-Z, especially Mr. Gates. However, although it's nothing new tbh, recently many chats and discussions seem overflowing with disinformation & misinformation which is, in my opinion, particularly painful at a time like this. Hence, this post became a vanilla list that's just recorded the notable events. — We all are subject to misinformation, miscalculation, and misjudgment. But the clearer the picture becomes the better we can identify Funkspiel.
------------------------
Immediate Aftermath pt.2.a
------------------------
Feasible Timeline of the Operation
------------------------
☞ Go Back to the Short Story.
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submitted by vanillabluesea to conspiracy [link] [comments]

200 achievements of Modi Govt

  1. Fragile five to Fastest growing economy - India
  2. 11th largest to the 5th largest economy - India
  3. Share of world GDP from 2.43% in 2014 to 3.08% in 2018
  4. Average GDP 7.3% against 6.7% in previous regime
  5. Forex reserves from 300 bn USD in 2014 to 420 bn USD in 2018
  6. Doubling of FDI inflow from 36 bn USD in 2014 to 66 billion USD in 2018
  7. Inflation less than 2.3 % (Nov 18) against 10.1% in 2014
  8. Growth of sensex from 24,121.74 in 2014 to 36,395.03 on 12 Feb 19 (50.88%)
  9. Fiscal deficit under control
  10. Per capita income increased by 45% from Rs 86,647 in 2014 to Rs 1,25,397
  11. IT exemption from 2 lakh in 2014 to 5 lakh (effectively 9.85 lakh with home loan)
  12. Restaurant bills tax reduced from 18% in 2014 to 5%
  13. Transaction charges through card down from 1% to 0%, domestic money transfer fee down from Rs 5 in 2014 to zero
  14. Financial inclusion (32 crore bank accounts with 260 billion worth deposits). Almost 100% coverage from earlier 50%
  15. DBT (savings of 83000 crores @ 15000 crore annually), No of govt schemes DBT applied to increased from 34 in 2014 to 433, 2.7 lakh fake mid-day meal students, 3.3 crore fake LPG connections, 87 lakh fake MNREGA job cards, 3 crore fake ration cards eliminated
  16. Zero IT for businesses with turnover upto 60 lakhs
  17. GST exemplifying cooperative federalism, rates of 83 items down from pre-GST rates, out of 1211 items only 35 items in above 18% slab, 39% reduction of cost of basic household items. Average 1 lk crore monthly revenue through GST collection. Exempted for business upto 40 lk
  18. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, constitution of NCLT, 3 lakh crores of NPAs recovered, 66 cases resolved, 260 cases liquidated, resolution of stressed assets, 2100 companies pay back 83000 crore to banks settling their pending loan repayments
  19. 75 billion $ or Yen to Rupee exchange agreement with Japan
  20. 1 lakh shell companies deregistered, FCRA licenses of 4800 NGOs cancelled
  21. Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, properties of economic fugitives seized and auctioned
  22. 1.9 lakh km of rural roads. Rural road connectivity at 91% from 55%
  23. 36 new airports, from 65 in 7 decades to 106, all states now in air connectivity map
  24. Effective international diplomacy following 59 visits to nations, 38 single, 10 double, 3 triple and 2 quadruple visits by PM.(Seen during Airstrikes,No Country opposed India)
  25. Benami Act for action against Money Laundering
  26. Rural sanitation coverage 95 % up from 39% (8.8 crore toilets)
  27. Solar energy capacity increased 8 fold from 2.63 GW to 22 GW, 19. 8.5 GW of biogas grid installed.
  28. Ganga waterway transportation, usage by shipping giant Maersk, cost of transportation reduced from 10/ton (road) / Rs 6/ton (rail) to Re 1/ton
  29. More than 2.4 crore households lit up, rural electricity coverage to households up from 70 to 95%, only 19836 homes remain (in Chhatisgarh) out of 2,48,09,235
  30. Electricity accessibility rank jump from 99 in 2014 to 26 in 2019
  31. 7 crore new gas connections to 3.5 crore households @69000 conections per day, coverage 90% from 55%, 82% return for refill, 42% beneficiaries Dalits
  32. 14.4 crore mudra loans worth Rs 7 lakh crore disbursed
  33. 18000 remote villages connected with electricity
  34. 2.92 lakh km of optical fibre laid, 0.02% to 50% gram Panchayat connectivity
  35. Swachh bharat mission has saved, according to WHO, 3 lakh lives and will save 1.5 lakh lives per year.
  36. IT filers increase from 3.79 crore to 6.08 crore, enterprises registered for indirect tax up from 64 lk to 118 lakh
  37. Entry of India in global regimes Missile Technology Control regime (MTCR), WA (Wassenaar Arrangement) and Australia Group
  38. 17 crore soil health cards
  39. 1.5 crore houses built, 91.37 crore in rural areas and 13.5 lakh in urban areas against 25 lakh houses built between 2010-2014. House for all target year is 2022.
  40. 1,78,346 houses built in NE over existing 2875 houses built till 2014
  41. Home loan interest rate down from 10.3 % in 2014 to 8.4% in 2018, annual savings of Rs 47,160 for 30 lakhs over 30 years, no GST on affordable housing, 5% on remaining
  42. Trading agreement in rupee with Iran and UAE
  43. Common service centres up from 84k to 3 Lakh
  44. OROP implemented after 43 years, 35000 crores disbursed to 8 crore veterans
  45. India's vaccination programme Indradhanush amongst 12 best practices of world
  46. 5035 Jan Aushadhi and - 1054 medicines under price control (60-90% discounts).
  47. More than 150 Amrit stores, reduction of cost of cromium cobalt Knee implant from 1.58-2.5 lakh to 54,720 and high flex implant from Rs181728 to 56490 (69%), 85% reduction in cardiac stent price to Rs 28000
  48. 87% reduction in 400 cancer drugs
  49. Rate of Interest on higher education loans dropped from 14.75 in 2013 to 10.88% in 2019, savings of 1.18 lakh on 10 lakh loan over tenure of 60 months, Rs 2000 savings on EMI
  50. Data revolution: Cost of 1 GB $0.26 in India against $12.37 in US, $6.66 in UK and $75.2 in Zimbabwe. Unlimited mobile+ 45 Gb data = Rs 150 against Rs 1000 in 2013; annual savings of 10,200
  51. Katra rail line work completed after 16 years
  52. Dhola Sadiya bridge work completed after 16 years
  53. Sardar Sarovar Dam work completed after 15 years
  54. Aadhaar act
  55. Pakyong airport completed after 10 years
  56. Chennai Nashri Tunnel after 10 years
  57. Assam NRC after 40 years
  58. National War Memorial after 50 years
  59. NE cpas after 60 years
  60. Kollam bypass after 43 years
  61. Indo-Bangladesh enclaves after 42 years
  62. Bansagar canal project after 40 years
  63. Bogibeel bridge after 23 years
  64. Western peri expressway after 15 years
  65. Kota Chambal bridge after 11 years
  66. Maibang-Lumding Stretch completed
  67. Delhi Meerut Expressway completed
  68. Ganga Expressway project (world's longest) underway
  69. Metros in Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow, Washermenpet
  70. All umanned level crossings eliminated
  71. Ayushman Bharat: annual 5 lakh health care to every family, 15.05 lakh hospital admissions for secondary/ tertiary treatment, 2.4 crore e-cards generated as on 10 Mar 19 in 170 days. Target 50 crore people.
  72. 59minutes loan portal: 92,000 loan applications of MSME amounting to 30,000 crores approved, 6000 crores sanctioned till Nov 18
  73. 87% of farming house (owning land of 2 hctrs) or 12 cr ppl to get kisaan sammaan nidhi of Rs 6000 pr year. Rs 5215 cr transferred directly to 2.6 crore farmers in 37 days (for households with holding less than 0.01 hectares incm per month so far was Rs 8136 agnst exp of 6594
  74. 1.5 million electric rickshaws
  75. Procurement of 36 Rafale on Government to Government Basis avoiding middlemen
  76. 05 billion$ S 400 Triumf air defence missile system deal with Russia
  77. 145 M777 howitzer deal
  78. 22 Apache AH 64E multi-role combat helos
  79. 200 KA-226T helicopters
  80. 56 EADS CASA C-295 transport aircraft
  81. 15 CH 47 Chinook tactical transport helicopters
  82. 2.3 lakh Bullet proof jackets
  83. 1.6 lakh Bullet-proof helmets
  84. 777 mn USD Barak 8 LRSAM contract
  85. 5 bn USD S-400 air defence systems
  86. 10 Heron TP armed drones
  87. 4 additional P8I MR aircraft
  88. 40 units of Laser sensor border fence installed
  89. 72,400 Sig Sauer Assault rifles
  90. 100 self-propelled K9 Vajra howitzers
  91. 700000 AK-103 Kalashnikov assault rifles indigenous facility
  92. Surgical strikes in Myanmar, across LoC and in Pakistan. Only Country to bomb a Nuclear Powered Country
  93. 240 million visitors at Kumbh Mela 2019, cost 4236 crores @ Rs 177 per tourist, revenue 1.2 Lakh crores
  94. 833 teraflop supercomputer Param Shivay by IIT BHU at Rs 32.5 crores
  95. Divisional status to Ladakh
  96. 470 bed ESIC hospital in Ennore
  97. 100 bed ESIC hospital in Tiruppur
  98. Namami Gange - Ganga is 30% cleaner, 83 out of 97 ganga towns and 4456 villages achieved ODF status, 08 out of 16 drains emptying 16 crore l sewage into Ganga tapped. Target date Mar 2020
  99. 5,45,122 ODF villages, 598 ODF districts, 27 ODF states/ villages
  100. RERA implementation
  101. Udaan scheme - flight cost down from Rs 5000/1000 km in 2013 to 3400/1000 km in 2018, 34 airports operationalised, small towns connected, all states on aerial
  102. Preventive conservation of 39275570 folios, curative conservation of 3656863 filios, digitisation of 2.83 lakh manuscripts consisting of 2.93 crore pages
  103. India is now world's largest 2-wheeler manufacturer, 2nd largest smartphone manufacturer (94% of mobiles sold now made in India), 4th largest automaker, 2nd largest steel producer
  104. 5100 m Mandvi Bridge in Goa in 3.5 years
  105. Ease of doing Business ranking jump from 134 in 2014 to 77 in 2019
  106. Therubali - Singapur Bridge No 588
  107. Restoration of Asurgarh Fort, Kalahandi
  108. GeM portal with 731431 product categories, 180,862 registered sellers and 32114 govt buyers
  109. 10% EWS reservation
  110. 40% of ongoing 700 NH projects completed, adding 40,039 km between 2014-18 against 91,287 km between 1947-2014
  111. Highway construction rate jumped from 12 km/day in 2014 to 27 km/day in 2019
  112. 101 terrorists and 11 offenders extradited
  113. 90,000 ex-partite Indians evacuated
  114. Chabahar port, Sittwe port and Duqm port
  115. Military installation in Seychelles
  116. International logistics agreements with US, France and Singapore
  117. Work underway on 25 MLD ZLD Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Gujarat Eco Textile Park and will save 25 million litres of water per day
  118. Beautification of 65 railway stations, all stations fitted with LED lights, wi-fi, multi-brand food centres, kiosks, executive lounges, lifts (445 from 97 in 2014), escalators (603 from 199 in 2014), travellators and ramps
  119. Record number of foot over bridges built
  120. 871 new train services
  121. 180 new rail lines
  122. Dedicated railway freight corridor - 2 sections completed
  123. 100% electrification of railways underway, first solar powered railway station (Guwahati). First solar powered train (world's second), savings of Rs 40 Lakhs and 90,000 ltrs diesel per year
  124. Make in India semi-high-speed trains - Tejas, Gatiman and Vande Bharat
  125. Humsafar and Antodaya trains, Deen Dayalu and Anubhuti coaches, UDAY double decker, glass dome Vistadome coaches
  126. Project Swarn and Project Utkrisht to upgrade Rajdhani/Shatabdi and Mail/Express respectively
  127. Largest coach production in world at ICF, Chennai
  128. No more human extreta on railway tracks. Installation of 1.37 lakh out of 2.5 lakh completed in Jun 18.
  129. 400 wi-fi railway stations (Aug 18)
  130. 80% reduction in rail accidents
  131. 10 high speed rail corridors underway, target date 2025-26
  132. Export of world class customised coaches from MCF, Rae Bareli
  133. LIC and Air India register profit
  134. 2300 km rail tracks constructed, speed jumped from 4.1 km/day in 2014 to 6.53 km/day in 2018
  135. Neem coating of urea
  136. Gokul mission - record 160 million ton milk production
  137. Online availability of CBSE and NCERT books
  138. 10 crore LED bulbs distributed, 5000 crore savings
  139. Investment in urban infrastructure jumped from 157703 crores to 795500 crores
  140. Statue of Unity to commemorate Iron Man of India
  141. Rs 2509 crore sales in Khadi
  142. 482.36 million digital transactions worth Rs 74,978 crores in Oct 2018 against 0.3 million transactions worth Rs 90 crores in Nov 2016
  143. 30% increase in ATMs, 208% increase of PoS machines from 10.81 lakh in May 14 to 33.32 lakh in Aug 18, 111% increase in credit cards from 1.94 crore in May 14 to 4.10 crore in Aug 18, 144% increase in debit cards from 40.17 crore to 98.02 crore
  144. Ease of Doing Business Index 142 (2014) to 100 (2018)
  145. Ease of getting electricity index 99 (2014) to 26 (2018)
  146. UN's e-govt index 118 (2014) to 97(2018)
  147. Globalisation index 112 to 107 (2018)
  148. Innovation index 76 to 60 (2018)
  149. Competitiveness index 71 to 39
  150. Logistics performance index 54 to 35
  151. Global peace index 141 to 137
  152. DBR ranking 100 to 77
  153. India ranks 3rd in global start up ecosystem
  154. 06 crore jobs in MSME sector based on CII data
  155. 448 million formal jobs based on EPFO, NPS and PPF data
  156. 10 crore jobs in entrepreneurship via mudra and other schemes
  157. 80% increase in tax payers, 51.3 % increase in gross tax revenue
  158. Black Money report card - Voluntary income declaration scheme (Rs 65250 crore), IT search and survey operations (35,460 crore), Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana(5000 crore), Benami transactions Act (4300 crore), Black Money and Imposition of Tax Act (4100 crore)
160 Rs 6000 financial assiatence for pregnant women
161/1 . Sagarmala: port capacity increase from 8 to 14.7 lakh ton, cargo up from 89 to 116 MMT 8 new national waterways including ganga waterway NW-1 and Brahmaputra waterway NW-2.
161/2. domestic cruise service between Mumbai and Goa, ro-ro services on Ghoga-Dahej reducing travel distance from 294 to 31 km
161/3. New international cruise terminals at Chennai and Goa, railway line between Haridaspur and Paradip underway, LNG import terminal at Kamarajar port, Oil berth ai Jawahar Dweep,Coal berth at Mangalore port
161/4 . deep draft Iron ore berth at Paradip berth, JNPT SEZ, Kandla and Paradip smart industrial port city, largest dry dock and international ship repair facility at CSL, modernisation of 17 fishing harbours
  1. 800 km Delhi-Mumbai Expressway underway
  2. Replacement of bio-toilets with upgraded vacuum bio toilets in trains underway. Order for 500 placed on experimental basis.
  3. No terror strikes in hinterland
  4. 103 new KVs
  5. 62 new Navodaya Vidyalayas
  6. 6 new IITs against 16 in previous 57 years
  7. 6 new IIMs against 13 in previous 57 years
  8. 7 IIITs against 7 in previous 57 years
  9. 02 new IISER
  10. 12 new AIIMS against 7 in previous 57 years.
  11. 141 new universities against 30 in previous 57 years
  12. 01 new NIT
  13. Life Insurances @ Rs 12 annual and @ Rs 12 monthly premiums
  14. Atal Pension Yojana
  15. Pension to 42 crore people of unorganised sector
  16. Ambedkar memorial
  17. BHIM application for digital payments
  18. Khelo India Initiative for tracking of athletes' development, Rs 5 lk per annum scholarship for 1000 budding athletes per year for eight years each; monthly Rs 50000 out-of -pocket exptr, 2000 PETs, salary cap of coaches doubled from Rs 1-2 lk per month, target 15 yrs
  19. Special Task Force for Olympics
  20. RERA Act
  21. Bullet train maiden project
182/1. Rs 6.92 lakh crore Bharatmala project, 44 economic corridors with 9000 km road, 2000 km port connectivity, 9000km roads to connect district HQs with NH,
182/2. 2000 km road with Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, opening up of 185 choke points, road development to char dham, 12 greenfield expressways spanning 1900 km
  1. 36 murtis retrieved and brought back to India in 2014-2019 under India Pride Project against 02 between 2000-2013, 02 in 90s, 03 in 80s, 01 in 70s and nil in 50s and 60s
  2. Unemployment rate 3.8% against 13.8 % in 2013
  3. India is a less-cash society now
  4. Develpment of Trincomalee and Columbo port while checkmating China's Hambantota by taking operations of near by (15 km away) Mattala Rajapaksha International Airport
  5. Plugging the 'double taxation avoidance' black money loophole through a new tax agreement with Mauritius
  6. Deal with Switzerland for automatic tax data sharing from 01 Jan 2019
189/1 Varanasi - Varanasi ring road phase 1 completed, phase 2 underway, inland waterways terminal, Babatpur airport highway, 140 MLD Dinaput STP, facelift to railway station, big cow shelter for stray cattle, BPO centre, piped gas project, Varanasi-Balia rail project,
189/2. Vande Bharat Express, Kashi Vishwanath temple - Ganga Ghat corridor project, renovation of all bathings ghats, LED illuminations of ghats and major roads, underground electricity cabling,
189/3. new sewage plants, 02 cancer treatment facilities, 65th to 29th rank in swachhata sarvekshan (2016), 90% ODF district.
  1. Creation of 100 Smart cities, 100 crore per year per city for 05 years, 500 acres for retrofitting, 50 acres for redevelopment, 250 acres for green field projects, 10% of energy from renewable resources, 80% of green building construction, special purpose vehicles.
191/1 Development of 500 AMRUT cities underway, urbanization project of rejuvenation and transformation which includes beach front development, prevention of beach erosion, improvement of water supply, replacement of pipelines,
191/2. New sewerage connections, greenery and open spaces, digital and smart facilities, e-governance, LED streetlights, public transport, storm water drainage projects in a phased manner, Target date 2022
  1. Increase in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in 104 BBBP (Beti Bachao Beti Padhao) districts, anti-natal care registration in 119 districts and institutional deliveries in 146 out of total 640 districts as in Mar 18. CSR of Haryana increased from 871 to 914.
  2. International Yoga Day
  3. Aspirational Districts Programme: 115 'backward' districts placed under 'prabharis' and for competitive development on the basis of 49 performance indicators, target year 2022.
195/1. Make in India: 16.4 lakh crore investment committments, 1.5 lakh crore investment inquiries, 60 bn USD FDI, 26 sectors covered, 23 positions jump in World Bank's Doing Business Report (DBR), 32 places in WEF's Global Competitiveness Index (GCI),
195/2 19 places in Logistics Performance Index, 42 places in Ease of Doing Business index, schemes include Bharatmala, Sagarmala, dedicate freight corridors, industrial corridors, UDAN-RCS, Bharat Broadband Network, Digital India.
  1. 251 Passport Seva Kendras (PSKs) and Post Office Passport Seva kendras (POPSKs) against 77 till 2014, target of one PSK every 50 km across India.
  2. Unanimous election of Justice Dalveer Bhandari to ICJ forcing UK to pull out own nominee Christopher Greenwood, demonstrating India's clout in international arena.
  3. India Post Payments Bank: India's biggest banking outreach with 1.55 lakh post offices (2.5 times banking network) linked to IPPB system
  4. Philip Kotler award, Seoul Peace prize, Champion of the Earth Award, Grand Collar of the State of Palestine, Amir Abdulla Khan Award, King Abdulaziz Sash award, Amir Amanullah Khan award.
  5. 1900 gifts and memorabilia received by Modi auctioned and 11.7 crores added to Namami Gange fund, 1.4 c of Seoul Peace award also to Nammami Gange.
submitted by Alive_Firefighter to IndiaSpeaks [link] [comments]

DIGITAL GOLD TOKEN, THE BASIC STABLE COIN FOR INVESTORS

DIGITAL GOLD TOKEN, THE BASIC STABLE COIN FOR INVESTORS
Introduction

Indeed, even rich individuals nevertheless need ventures to shield their benefits from falling an incentive because of enlargement.
The importance of contributing will be higher for those whose lives depend upon a month to month compensation in particular. It is incautious to allow the belongings claimed just be inserted in close to home storage and now not to be searched for but an awful lot as could reasonably be predicted to shield the assets from enlargement.

Since with not anything to do with riches, at that point there's a shrinkage of the assets. One great develop to protect their property from dangers — future dangers and to enhance the fate of existence is a hypothesis. Speculations are the situation of cash or property with expectancies of obtaining extra or sure blessings at the coins.

https://preview.redd.it/k3mukir3g0c41.jpg?width=271&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=13c7c1d4f699a233831ac7b915d31ec60ddc598c
The speculation law applies that the better the advantage offered then the higher the risk that buyers ought to endure. Investors should have continued misfortunes a good deal past what that might lose all his capital. Basic for the investor to decide his/her objective in contributing with the goal that it can select what sort of speculation to select.

Numerous styles of ventures may be utilized, but in this newsletter, the author talks about the hypothesis that the bigger element within the usage of buyers is gold. Gold is one of the maximum commonly utilized undertaking gadgets within the network.
This is because of the estimation of gold that is constantly expanding from the hour of your citizenship. Despite the truth that the expansion in esteem does not will in popular be sizable, gold is one of the long haul hypothesis devices worth considering.
Gold purchasing and promoting bureaucracy are easy whilst the network goes to provide the gold just want to attach verification of procurement with the easy method of deciding on gold an astounding choice for people to make contributions.

https://preview.redd.it/pyy9gnp5g0c41.jpg?width=318&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1db660ed7e01575850bbed7146c348c63de393ef
Talking about gold speculation, but does the peruser recognize whether gold mission presently may be in a complicated way within the feeling of unnecessary storing gold in the residence? This time the writer will talk about ventures that are as but diagnosed with gold contributing.

With the developing time, contributing gold presently ought now not want to spare it straightforwardly, currently you'll already be capable of make a contribution gold via Cryptocurrency this is at the fee of gold on the planet promote it, present a project that Between Cryptocurrency and gold.

The undertaking is referred to as Digital Gold, at that point what's Digital Gold?
Digital Gold is a Crypto currency coin that intends to make it is simpler for buyers to place sources into gold without considering sparing their gold wherein, in light of the reality that Digital Gold gives comfy storage, Digital Gold itself Using the Ethereum arrange as their blockchain set up, the Ethereum organize is widely recognized for its velocity and modest on the way to encourage buyers, Digital Gold Coin can likewise be called with GOLD at the Ethereum arrange.

For what motive wouldn't it be a good concept so one can decide to position assets into Digital Gold?

https://preview.redd.it/5bdqcij6g0c41.jpg?width=284&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=22c97fa919ad7c2fecfc8c1e7cddcf8ab59c01b2
What we understand is superior gold is similar to the physical gold we as of now have, but numerous points of interest inside the event which you put sources into Digital Gold, what are the benefits?

Extremely protected
On the off hazard that the per user has physical gold, the per user will most possibly feel befuddled about storing it, given that it's far harassed misplaced or in take. In any case, if the per user places sources into Digital Gold, the per user does not ought to strain over the gold that per users have, in view of the gold that per users Will be stayed with in a included safe.

Obscurity
Putting resources into Digital Gold per users just want to have a wallet cryptographic cash may be gotten on transportable or on a PC, and no person will recognize whether the per user has gold, in light of the fact that the idea of the Ethereum set up is very Anonymity, per users just Have a pockets deal with, no actual name or KYC confirmation is required to buy or sell Digital Gold.

Simple and easy
While having a physical gold per user might be hard to sell it, because it needs to release the car, and can't whenever sell it, in Digital Gold per users can buy or sell GOLD on every occasion and anywhere simply utilizing hand-held Smartphone Users, so there is no ought to be hard to put sources into Digital Gold.

Transparent
Its straightforwardness truly knows blockchain in every transaction, and in blockchain, innovation has the upside of being modest and short.

Stable
Try now not to befuddle, Digital Gold Token has a comparable charge as physical gold when all is said in carried out, 1 Token = 1 Gram gold with immaculateness charge 99.Ninety nine%, and one-of-a-kind advantages are at the entire GOLD tokens in the reinforcement by using unadulterated gold this is stored within the business enterprise distribution middle.

Every token is made by means of an Ethereum keen settlement, and the sum will constantly compare to the amount of gold stored inside the organization's stockroom.

Where might i be capable of buy and sell Digital (GOLD)?
Advanced Gold has simply been rundown in a few exchanges, and Digital Gold itself may be exchanged or bought within the site of the accompanying:

https://preview.redd.it/hry41ig4g0c41.jpg?width=271&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=abfdca42c5f5398d90151f9ad35fd473fd2e081c
DIGITAL GOLD'S OFFICIAL MARKETPLACE

Digital Gold's true commercial center is an change this is spoken through Digital Gold on its legit website. You can go to it by way of the connection below:

CRYPTEX
A programmed management with which you could absolutely and rapidly change virtual forms of cash for electronic monetary paperwork and back with out enlisting. Purchasing and selling bitcoin and distinctive digital kinds of cash unbounded and confinements.
We work with money in eleven countries, financial institution playing cards, and electronic installments.

BITFOREX
One of the primary and most in style exchanges with a tremendous many dealers from all areas of the sector.
BitForex is an exceptionally first rate entire platform for trading and a authentic one-prevent advanced aid management platform.

For further information, do visit
Official Website : https://gold.storage/
White paper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.com/gold_erc20

Author: cytpoway121 Link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2202709
submitted by cytpoway to BlockchainStartups [link] [comments]

TomoChain September Recap: All the latest September Actions!

TomoChain September Recap: All the latest September Actions!
It seems as if TomoChain has been teleporting all over the place in the month of September. You saw us presented at blockchain events all over South-East Asia, made an appearance in the U.S. exchange market, travelled back home to make proposals to the Vietnamese government, and hopped back to TomoChain’s office to perfect our products. It’s a never resting grind here in the TomoChain’s world. Let’s check out what hard work has been laid down this past month.
https://preview.redd.it/togdhc4ayvp31.png?width=5000&format=png&auto=webp&s=1137c84a7eac8c8c27e6f876f41e18597311de57
***
  • Past events
- AMA with Crypto Nation.
- AMA with Conflux – answer community’s question to learn more about Conflux’s future plans and partnership with TomoChain.
- TomoChain welcome special guests to visit our office, experience using our products and exchange international cultures.
- TomoChain Japan launched its LINE group, opening up a new information exchange platform for the community.
- TomoChain attended Singapore Consensus – Invest:Asia.
- TOMO team is excited to be invited by HashKey Group to attend Shanghai International Blockchain Week, the largest Blockchain conference in China.
- Long Vuong presented to Vietnam's Ministry of Justice about the benefits of public blockchain, suggesting a proposal to develop a regulatory legal framework to apply blockchain as a potential system for the development of Vietnam's economy.
- TomoChain’s CFO - Ms. Le Ho, was invited to attend the State Bank of Vietnam's conference about nurturing sustainable Fintech ecosystems, including blockchain in Vietnam
- Blockchain representatives in Vietnam, including TomoChain requested a ‘sandbox’ for the technology while meeting with Government agencies.
***
  • Must read/watch
- Loyalty Point on Blockchain – changing consumer’s experience in everyday life shopping. TomoChain proposes better approach which we believe will be the standard for the whole market in the foreseeable future. With TomoZ, TomoX protocols based on TomoChain, the adoption of blockchain can soon come to each consumer’s fingertips.
- Listen to Long Vuong’s opinion on how TomoChain is racing towards Crypto Mass Adoption. TomoChain continues to experiment with the right infrastructure, models and products to help catch up with the development of web 3.0, attracting more mainstream users to this technology.
- Problems business faces when applying blockchain. Integrating a new blockchain technology isn’t just “plug and play”. TomoChain has been working hard on implementing solutions for enterprises and will provide expertise for how smart contract can be built on blockchain.
- Long Vuong shared TomoChain’s exciting future in an exclusive interview with The Daily Chain. The crypto industry is still at a very early stage but the vision of building an alternative financial system and decentralized web is strong and viable. If we continue building and improving, crypto finance will continue growing the market share.

***Thank you for all your support! Let's look forward to what October will bring us! ***
submitted by alexngn201 to Tomochain [link] [comments]

India free classified ads sites without registration

A publicizing like in paper, online and magazines which are distributed with no charge or sold is known as detailed promotion. Likewise, these promotions are less expensive than ads that are displayed; however, they are much being used. These days the online ad promotion is the most helpful and effectively reachable methods for publicizing as around 40% of the total populace has a web association today. Now we will examine an online classified commercial technique which let us post free advertisement on free websites.
What is Web-based Promoting Posting?
Web-based publicizing is a method for showcasing and publicizing through the web for expanding the business opportunity and advancing your business.
What are the advantages of posting free Advertisements on Classified Sites?
The following are the benefits of why online promotion has become very useful today:
· Increment the traffic of the site
· Free advertisement posting locales
· Saves Time
· Incredible opportunity
· Effectively congenial
There are many free worldwide advertisements posting websites accessible around on the web today which give free promotion posting administrations. Likewise, there are many free grouped advertisements posting programming on the internet, which you can download and utilize it for posting promotion all-around effectively. A few of those sites post an ad without enlistment or sign up.
Here are some free sites for advertisement posting:
Clickindia:
It is a reputed website based in India which offers numerous advantages when it comes to ad posting. There are different categories on offer in terms of products and services, and you can choose any type depending upon your business requirement. It is one reputed website in India in terms of advertising.
Expressclassifieds.in:
Renowned as another top-rated ad promotion site, they also have several options when it comes to ad posting. It is a site, as known by the name itself, offers quick search options and filters so that you can screen the product and item you are looking for and find the ideal product for you. It is equally a good site for both buyers and sellers alike.
Asklaila:
Another viral classified website where you can both post and look for any information regarding pets, entertainment, coffee shop, shopping, nightlife, doctors, movies, and several other things. It is a very renowned classified site in India and everything in store for you to find your requirement.
Justdial.com:
Today, you will hardly fond anyone who doesn’t have any idea about justdial.com. It has an enormous database of different sections, which include buying air tickets, automobiles, recharge, book hotels, cab rentals, medicines, fitness, and numerous more. They offer essential information in terms of jobs if you are looking for full time as well as part-time. It is one of the oldest classified websites and once you have reached here for searching something you will get it for sure. You can also post numerous ads under the several categories available here.
Ishuads.in:
Ishuads.in is another classified website for free ad posting; this is a website where you can get all you need to promote your product. They also offer different sections where you can opt for the category of product or service and post your ad. There is also an option of phone number verification which is essential because once you do so, more customers will be able to reach you and vice-versa. It is a useful online platform for your brand promotion. You should try this no matter whatever campaign you are in. It is free to post your ads.
Whereincity.com:
It is another online platform for advertisement and promotion, which is free for posting as well. This website offers plenty of search options and different categories to choose from. Apart from the free classifieds, it provides several other services like Hotel Reservations, booking through SMS, Forex Trading, Airlines booking, and plenty more options. You may post several ads under several categories offered there.
adsglobe.com:
As the name suggests, it covers areas that can exist in this world. If you open their website, you will find all the information on the front page itself. Their interface is straightforward with all the categories provided as a list so that you do not have to search them manually. The critical thing to know that you may not need to register here to post your ad and ad posting is free. So choose your category, fill up the necessary details, and the go-ahead to post your ad in a single click.
Postfreeads.in:
Postfreeads.in is a classified website which has made their mark not so long ago. It has plenty of categories that you can choose for the promotion of your product. It is a very much user-friendly website where you will have access to all the information that too free of cost. You will not need to register here as it is not mandatory and you will be able to post your ad under the suitable section. Already, numerous individuals and enterprises have posted their ads under this platform. It is growing even stronger with the passing of every year. If you have not come across this site to date, go through it and explore all the options here.
Freeadsmax.com:
If you have come across this site before, you must know freeadsmax is very useful as a classified ad website. There are different sections on this website, which you will get to see once you open the home page of the website. The different categories here include anything that you would like to buy or sell, education and training, services, a section for different types of jobs available, travel and holidays, exchanging two-wheelers or other automobiles and so on. Through this website, you can reach the audience all over India. Try this website as it is free as well if you have not tried it before.
Conclusion:
There are numerous opportunities galore if you are new in your business and are trying to reach the mass market. Today, the presence of online portals has made everything possible, and expanding your market has never been easy like it is today. Hence, to make yourself successful, start building your online presence today.
submitted by KeishaM to globalnewsroom [link] [comments]

Get ready for the trading week of March 4th, 2019!

Hey what's happening wallstreetbets! Good morning and happy Saturday to all of you on this subreddit. I hope everyone made out pretty nicely in the market last week, and are ready for the new trading week ahead! :)
Here is everything you need to know to get you ready for the trading week beginning March 4th, 2019.

The week ahead: Jobs report needs to silence rising worries about the economy - (Source)

Job growth has remained vibrant despite the slow-growing economy,and that's a trend investors are anxious to see confirmed in the February employment report on Friday.
Even with some economists expecting growth around 1 percent for the first quarter, the labor market has been strong, and economists expect to see 185,000 jobs added in February. The economy is widely expected to bounce back in the second quarter to a pace well above 2 percent, after the temporary headwinds from the government shutdown and polar vortex abate.
The jobs data tops the list of important economic news in the week ahead, particularly after a string of disappointing reports showing that both consumers and businesses have pulled back.
The stock market will pass a major milestone on Wednesday—the tenth anniversary of the day the market bottomed in 2009, when the S&P 500 hit 666. The S&P has gained more than 312 percent since that low of the financial crisis, and some analysts see the bull market continuing for at least another year.
"We think there's further upside for this bull market to go. The age of the bull does not matter. What really matters is how healthy it is," said Patrick Palfrey, U.S. equity strategist at Credit Suisse. "Whatever the concerns, around trade tariffs, or decelerating corporate profits, we believe this bull market remains very healthy."
The S&P 500 is taking aim at the 2,800 level, an important milestone that it has struggled to surpass in the past week. The 2,800 marker was an important level for the stock market four times in past several months, and holding above it could signal the rally could drive stocks to fresh highs.
Palfrey said investors first and foremost are looking at any information that can help them gauge how the economy is doing. "We're looking for confirmation in the jobs report. We think the economy is doing okay. Labor participation is improving. We're going to see that continuing to inch back up," he said.
The Citigroup economic surprise index fell to a new 18-month low Friday, following a recent rash of disappointing reports. When economic reports come in below economists' expectations, the surprise index falls and a low number for the index is reflecting the economic slowdown.
Source: Citigroup
Goldman Sachs economists Friday said they were expecting first quarter growth of just 0.9 percent, but they raised second quarter growth to 2.9 percent.

New home sales

In addition to the jobs report, there is the Fed's beige book on the economy Wednesday and new home sales Tuesday. But after delayed and weaker data, it's the jobs report that matters most. The employment report is one data point that has been released as normal through the shutdown, and in the January data, there was a huge upside surprise of 304,000 nonfarm payrolls.
"All eyes are on the job market. If businesses lose faith and they stop hiring, and job growth starts slowing, then we do have problems," said Mark Zandi, chief economist at Moody's Analytics. Economists expect wages to rise by 0.3 percent and unemployment to fall a tenth to 3.9 percent, according to Refinitiv.
"I think companies should stay steadfast in their hiring," Zandi said. He expects job growth of about 200,000 but notes there could be a payback for the huge amount of hires in January.
"I think the economy is fragile, growth is below trend. It's very vulnerable. The only thing that will keep it together is if businesses keep hiring and the job market holds up, and I think it will unless the president doesn't settle with the Chinese on trade, or there's a hard Brexit or some other geopolitical event," said Zandi.
The Federal Reserve has paused in its interest rate hiking because of the slowing economy and concerns about financial conditions. But the Fed could move forward on rates again, if inflation begins to pick up, and for that reason the wage data in the jobs report would also be key were it to show new wage pressures.
There are a few speeches by Fed officials, including Fed Chairman Jerome Powell who speaks at Stanford University Friday night at an economic conference.
Market focus will also be on the European Central Bank which meets Thursday.
"I think people are expecting some detail about a long-term loan operation," said Marc Chandler, chief market strategist at Bannockburn Global Forex. The ECB is expected to allow European banks to extend the duration of some short-term loans. Chandler said the ECB could also push back on its time frame on raising interest rates, which it has said would not be until after the summer.

This past week saw the following moves in the S&P:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL S&P TREE MAP FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Indices for this past week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR INDICES FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Futures Markets as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR FUTURES INDICES AS OF FRIDAY!)

Economic Calendar for the Week Ahead:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL ECONOMIC CALENDAR FOR THE WEEK AHEAD!)

Sector Performance WTD, MTD, YTD:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S PERFORMANCE!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE WEEK-TO-DATE PERFORMANCE!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE MONTH-TO-DATE PERFORMANCE!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE 3-MONTH PERFORMANCE!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE YEAR-TO-DATE PERFORMANCE!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE 52-WEEK PERFORMANCE!)

Percentage Changes for the Major Indices, WTD, MTD, QTD, YTD as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

S&P Sectors for the Past Week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Major Indices Pullback/Correction Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Major Indices Rally Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Most Anticipated Earnings Releases for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Here are the upcoming IPO's for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Friday's Stock Analyst Upgrades & Downgrades:

(CLICK HERE FOR CHART LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR CHART LINK #2!)
(CLICK HERE FOR CHART LINK #3!)

Typical March Trading: Mid-Month Surge and Flat

Over the recent 21 years March has been a solid performing month for the market. Average gains over the period range from a low of 1.29% by NASDAQ to a respectable 2.0% by Russell 2000. March has also been the #1 performing month by average performance for S&P 500 and Russell 2000 over the last 21 years. First trading day of March gains typically kick of the month, followed by choppy to slightly higher trading until around the tenth or eleventh trading day when the market tends to surge higher until around the fifteenth trading day. At this point the market tends to cool and can succumb to some end-of-quarter selling pressure.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Bad Q4 Not A Bad Sign

Now that the 4th quarter market debacle is behind us and solid gains have been logged in 2019 year-to-date we have taken a deeper dive into market action following Q4 losses for the three main U.S. market indices. DJIA and S&P 500 have been solid over the next for the next four quarters and the next year when Q1 is positive, but also good following all but three subsequent Q1 losses. On average up about 80% of the time for the full year with average gains around 8%. NASDAQ’s record is choppier.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

STOCK MARKET VIDEO: Stock Market Analysis Video for March 1st, 2019

(CLICK HERE FOR THE YOUTUBE VIDEO!)

STOCK MARKET VIDEO: ShadowTrader Video Weekly 3.3.19 - A Hanging Man at the Top of the Box

(CLICK HERE FOR THE YOUTUBE VIDEO!)
Here are the most notable companies (tickers) reporting earnings in this upcoming trading week ahead-
  • $CRM
  • $NIO
  • $TGT
  • $WB
  • $PLUG
  • $KSS
  • $MGIC
  • $YY
  • $CIEN
  • $IPAR
  • $KR
  • $BZUN
  • $OKTA
  • $BCRX
  • $COST
  • $SINA
  • $SESN
  • $DLTR
  • $LUNA
  • $CTRP
  • $ANF
  • $MEET
  • $ACRX
  • $GDP
  • $SPKE
  • $ADMS
  • $URBN
  • $GNC
  • $GMS
  • $BURL
  • $LJPC
  • $BJ
  • $ADUS
  • $THO
  • $VNET
  • $MRVL
  • $GSKY
  • $GAIA
  • $ROST
  • $AEO
  • $TPB
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S MOST NOTABLE EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S HIGHEST VOLATILITY EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR MOST ANTICIPATED EARNINGS RELEASES FOR THE NEXT 4 WEEKS!)
Below are some of the notable companies coming out with earnings releases this upcoming trading week ahead which includes the date/time of release & consensus estimates courtesy of Earnings Whispers:

Monday 3.4.19 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Monday 3.4.19 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 3.5.19 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 3.5.19 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 3.6.19 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 3.6.19 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 3.7.19 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 3.7.19 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 3.8.19 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 3.8.19 After Market Close:

([CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Salesforce $164.53

Salesforce (CRM) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:05 PM ET on Monday, March 4, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.55 per share on revenue of $3.56 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.60 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 84% expecting an earnings beat The company's guidance was for earnings of $0.54 to $0.55 per share. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 48.65% with revenue increasing by 24.87%. Short interest has increased by 18.5% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 18.8% from its open following the earnings release to be 15.4% above its 200 day moving average of $142.59. Overall earnings estimates have been revised higher since the company's last earnings release. On Wednesday, February 27, 2019 there was some notable buying of 5,030 contracts of the $165.00 call expiring on Friday, June 21, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 7.0% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 3.1% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

NIO Inc. $10.06

NIO Inc. (NIO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:30 AM ET on Tuesday, March 5, 2019. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 71% expecting an earnings beat The company's guidance was for revenue of $418.00 million to $436.00 million. The stock has drifted higher by 39.3% from its open following the earnings release. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Monday, February 25, 2019 there was some notable buying of 40,151 contracts of the $9.00 call expiring on Friday, March 15, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 11.9% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.2% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Target Corp. $72.94

Target Corp. (TGT) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Tuesday, March 5, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.53 per share on revenue of $23.15 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.55 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 71% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 11.68% with revenue increasing by 1.69%. Short interest has decreased by 7.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 7.3% from its open following the earnings release to be 5.5% below its 200 day moving average of $77.16. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Tuesday, February 19, 2019 there was some notable buying of 43,529 contracts of the $80.00 call expiring on Thursday, April 18, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 6.7% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 6.4% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Weibo Corporation $72.07

Weibo Corporation (WB) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 5:00 AM ET on Tuesday, March 5, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.75 per share on revenue of $481.53 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.78 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 73% expecting an earnings beat The company's guidance was for revenue of $480.00 million to $490.00 million. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 19.05% with revenue increasing by 27.58%. Short interest has increased by 20.4% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 16.9% from its open following the earnings release to be 2.0% below its 200 day moving average of $73.57. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Tuesday, February 12, 2019 there was some notable buying of 1,610 contracts of the $75.00 call expiring on Friday, July 19, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 9.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 5.7% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Plug Power, Inc. $1.80

Plug Power, Inc. (PLUG) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, March 7, 2019. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.05 per share on revenue of $58.78 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.05) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 55% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 44.44% with revenue increasing by 84.42%. Short interest has increased by 6.8% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted lower by 8.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 12.6% below its 200 day moving average of $2.06. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 20.0% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 7.0% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Kohl's Corporation $68.10

Kohl's Corporation (KSS) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Tuesday, March 5, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $2.17 per share on revenue of $6.79 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $2.19 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 55% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 16.04% with revenue increasing by 0.21%. Short interest has decreased by 12.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 8.3% from its open following the earnings release to be 4.3% below its 200 day moving average of $71.15. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Wednesday, February 27, 2019 there was some notable buying of 3,138 contracts of the $75.00 put expiring on Friday, March 15, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 8.3% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 5.0% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Magic Software Enterprises, Ltd. $9.15

Magic Software Enterprises, Ltd. (MGIC) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:30 AM ET on Monday, March 4, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.14 per share on revenue of $73.75 million. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 62% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 27.27% with revenue increasing by 11.59%. Short interest has decreased by 80.9% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 8.0% from its open following the earnings release. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

YY Inc. $70.88

YY Inc. (YY) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 5:30 PM ET on Monday, March 4, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.86 per share on revenue of $641.65 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.91 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 71% expecting an earnings beat The company's guidance was for revenue of $630.00 million to $652.00 million. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 0.53% with revenue increasing by 15.12%. Short interest has decreased by 13.8% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 13.9% from its open following the earnings release to be 10.4% below its 200 day moving average of $79.10. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Wednesday, February 20, 2019 there was some notable buying of 1,504 contracts of the $75.00 call expiring on Friday, August 16, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 9.0% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 10.9% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Ciena Corporation $42.76

Ciena Corporation (CIEN) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Tuesday, March 5, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.30 per share on revenue of $757.37 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.34 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 73% expecting an earnings beat The company's guidance was for revenue of $745.00 million to $775.00 million. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 130.77% with revenue increasing by 17.22%. Short interest has decreased by 7.2% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 19.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 39.2% above its 200 day moving average of $30.72. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, March 1, 2019 there was some notable buying of 1,235 contracts of the $28.00 put expiring on Friday, July 19, 2019. Option traders are pricing in a 9.9% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 8.0% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Inter Parfums Inc. $75.24

Inter Parfums Inc. (IPAR) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:45 AM ET on Monday, March 4, 2019. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.19 per share on revenue of $177.22 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.21 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 53% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 35.71% with revenue increasing by 18.52%. Short interest has increased by 27.9% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 20.0% from its open following the earnings release to be 24.1% above its 200 day moving average of $60.61. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. The stock has averaged a 2.8% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

DISCUSS!

What are you all watching for in this upcoming trading week ahead?
Have a fantastic weekend and a great trading week ahead to everyone here on wallstreetbets! :)
submitted by bigbear0083 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

【翻译Quora上一篇问答】中国是否正在面临一次银行危机(谈到房地产) by phoebeDD on 2016-10-04

Is China really facing a banking crisis? What are its origins?
(中国是否正在面对一次银行危机?其根源又是什么?)



According to a recent article titled China facing full-blown banking crisis, world's top financial watchdog war
ns published in the Telegraph:
(根据近期电讯文章报道:“世界顶级金融观察者发出警告:中国正在面临全面的银行危机”)
China has failed to curb excesses in its credit system and faces mounting risks of a full-blown banking crisis
(中国已对债务违约失去控制,他们正在面对随之而来的全面性银行危机)
(中国债务/GDP 占比图)


Financial Crises

International Economics

The Economy

China

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9 Answers
以下为回答部分:





Robin Daverman, Dealmaker
Written Sep 27


Ah, but maybe you want to look around a bit and see how China’s total debt is compared with other economies, like this?
(你可能想看看其他经济体与中国的债务情况相比是怎么样的,如下图)

(G10债务分布图)
If you put China’s data on this chart, it will be somewhere around Canada and New Zealand. Guess Which Country Has Debt Of Nearly 1000% Of GDP... Shocking, isn’t it?
如果你将中国的数据插入上图进行比较的话,中国的数据大约会在加拿大和新西兰之间。猜猜看哪个国家债务大约是自己GDP的10倍....(英国)非常震惊吧
UK has almost 1000% Debt-to-GDP ratio, compared with China’s < 300% Debt-to-GDP ratio, mostly because of that over-sized financial debt - at the end of the day, the government must stand behind it. On top of that, the UK has no resource to sell, hardly any industry left, going through a divorce with EU, and almost never ever meets her fiscal targets. And yet, UK, with its near 1000% debt-to-GDP ratio, is still viewed as the gold standard among safe havens. PRESENTING: The Rosetta Stone Of The Entire Sovereign Debt Crisis Why? Because UK issues debt in her own currency. And who prints the pound? The UK government.
英国的债务/GDP占比将近1000%而中国只是小于300%,其原因是其过于庞大的金融债务——政府最终将不得不为之站台。在此之上,英国没用可出售的资源,没有任何本国工业,正在脱离欧盟,而且英国基本上从来没有达成其财务目标。即使如此,英国仍然被某些传媒视为安全经济体的黄金标准。其原因就是英债都以英镑的方式结算。那么是谁印英镑的呢?英国政府。
Then you take a look at Japan, wow that’s 600%+ debt-to-GDP ratio! But - Japan’s debt is not only mostly internal, in Japanese Yen, but also with 0% or even negative interest. You can roll this kind of debt over practically forever. That’s why people have been yelling about Japanese debt for the last 20 years, and nothing happens.
然后你看看日本,将近600%的债务/GDP占比!但是,日本的债务几乎都是内部的,以日元的形式出售的债务,而且日本是0利率甚至是负利率。实际上这种债务你可以无限积累下去(经济常识:如果是负利率,政府只要保持债务不变,多出来的部分会自行消失)。这就是为啥人们对日债担心了20年但屁事没有发生。
Then you take a look at those economies that have blown up on debt:
Argentina: Government/Sovereign debt in USD, with jurisdiction in New York!Greece: Government/Sovereign debt in Euro, with jurisdiction in Brussels!Iceland: External financial debt → nationalized into Government/Sovereign debt in USD and Euro alone was 700%+ GDP in 2008, with jurisdiction in New York and Brussels.
然后你看看那些因债务问题毁掉的经济体:
阿根廷:政府/主权债务以美元形式结算,其裁判权在纽约!希腊:政府/主权债务以欧元方式结算,其裁判权在布鲁塞尔!冰岛:外部金融债务→债务国有化后2008年政府/主权债务以美元和欧元的形式达到GDP的700%,其裁判权在纽约和布鲁塞尔
Then you look at China, with her debt almost entirely internal, in Chinese RMB to Chinese citizens, government debt at 55%, lower than the US, Japan, and EU average, in her own currency. China’s external debt is about 9% of GDP, globally ranked 184th (less than North Korea, similar to Kosovo) - anyway you look at it, it’s hardly the kind of material to make a banking crisis. China is borrowing a little bit from her own piggy bank. Argentina/Greece/Iceland were borrowing a lot from the Mafia.
然后你看看中国,中国的债务基本都是内部以人民币结算的。中国政府债务只占总债务的55%,比美国,日本和欧盟都要低,再次强调,其债务以人民币结算。中国外部债务只占GDP的9%,全球排行184位(比朝鲜低,比科索沃高)。无论怎么看,你都不会看到中国有任何银行危机的迹象。中国只是向其国内贪心的银行借钱。阿根廷/希腊/冰岛可是像美国欧盟这些黑手党借钱。
PS: The most significant increase in China’s debt is in the financial sector, driven by rising real estate price (which means higher value of housing loans). Right now, the Chinese government is basically using it as a tool to do macro-economic engineering. The goal is to cap urban growth in top tier cities (Beijing, Shanghai, etc.) and push the economic growth to second- and third- tier cities (Hangzhou, the city that just hosted G20, is an example.http://www.g20.org/English/Hangzhou/About/index.html Now you can look back and see why the Chinese government decided to host G20 in a city nobody has ever heard of). This is clearly stated by the Chinese government like 100 times since last year in the official news channels. The reason? Top tier Chinese cities like Shanghai (25 million) already have more city residents than the whole nation of Australia! The metropolitan area of Shanghai (44 million) has more people than the entire population of Canada! In one city! Beijing’s population grew by 8 million within the last decade! The place is simply full.List of cities in China by population and built-up area
PS: 中国最显著的债务增长是在其金融领域内不断升高的房价造成的(不断增高的房贷造成债务问题)。现在中国政府正在利用房价作为宏观经济调控的工具。其目的是限制一线城市的城市化进程和加速二三线城市的发展(刚刚举办了G20的杭州就是个例子,现在你就能知道为啥中国政府将G20放在一个没人听说过的城市举行了)。这些政策中国政府已经在官媒上宣布了无数次。原因就是一线城市,例如上海(2500万人口),其居民数量比阿根廷全国人口还要多!上海都市圈(4400万人口)的人口数量比加拿大全国还要多!北京人口数量在过去的10年内增长了800万!这些城市的人口数量已经饱和了。
In addition to real estate prices, the Chinese government is also doing stuff like restricting residents permits, disallowing second or third homes, even restricting jobs to local residents, everything to say “this place is full. We have these other nice choices, with lower housing prices. Go there.” Young people complaining about housing prices in tier-one cities? But that’s the whole point. The debt you have to take on to live in tier-one cities SHOULD SCARE YOU OFF. The Chinese government is trying to stop the influx of people pouring into tier-one cities, and get these smart and energetic youths to go build two, three, four, five. … more Shanghai’s in other parts of China. 1.4 billion people can’t all fit into tier-one cities.
除了以房地产为手段,中国政府也加强控制了居住证的发放,禁止第二/三套房买入甚至对本地居民的工作种类进行限制,这些都是为了表达一个意思:这些地方都人满为患了。二三线城市有更低的房价和更好的生活条件,快点去那里吧!年轻人都在抱怨一线城市的高房价?但这就是中国政府想要的。你在一线城市生存需要的代价会把你吓退。中国政府正在尝试控制一线城市的人口流入而让有技术和充满活力的年轻人去建设二三四五线城市——让更多的上海出现在国家的其他地方。14亿人口是没可能全部都聚集在一线城市的。
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Paul Denlinger, Involved in China economics study
Written Sep 27


There is too much debt, and a lot of it is likely to turn into bad debt, but that does not equal a banking crisis.
是因为中国贷款太多了,而这些贷款大多数会变成不良贷款,但这些都不等银行危机
Banking crisis may be a nice term to bandy around and get clicks and headlines, but does not really explain what is going on.
银行危机或许是一个十分吸引眼球的头条,但是根本就不能解释实际的情况
There was a lot of debt financing, especially after the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis in the US. In order to keep the economy on a steady keel, the Chinese government, through its banks, pumped money to Chinese state-owned enterprises, in order to keep high employment and maintain an image of “growth”. A lot of this money then found its way into the underground banking system through “wealth management products” and other means. A lot of this has turned into bad debt.
中国政府有过很多次债务融资,特别是08年美国次贷危机之后。为了稳住经济增长,中国政府通过银行将大量人民币注入到国企内以维持就业率和高增长的形象。但这些钱最终大都以理财产品和其他形式流进了地下钱庄。这些大部分都变成了不良贷款。
Another problem area, which frequently overlaps with the “wealth management products” is the local government financing vehicle used to fund local property development, which I have discussed here: Paul Denlinger's answer to Why does China have so many ghost towns?
另一个有问题的领域,和“理财产品”有莫大关联的,就是地方政府为当地基础建设所采用的金融工具(我在这个地方有详细的分析:https://www.quora.com/Why-does-China-have-so-many-ghost-towns/answePaul-Denlinger?srid=tR&share=22b99cfc
What is likely to happen in China is that growth will slow down in some areas, while there will be certain newer parts of the economy which will continue to grow. If the Chinese government is able to support the newer parts of the economy and help them to grow, while cutting back on loans to the weaker parts of the economy, it may be able to handle this transition better.
最可能发生的情况就是中国的经济增长将会放缓,但是肯定会用新的增站点。如果中国政府能支持新的增长点而且能减低夕阳工业的不良贷款率,那么或许能更好地度过过渡期。
This is exactly what the Chinese government is trying to do and you can read about it here:Here is how China is going to quietly save its economy
这些正是中国政府正在尝试去做的,你可以读读这个文章了解一下:http://www.scmp.com/news/china/economy/article/2022491/china-deploys-policy-banks-stealth-mission-stimulate-growth
So, if you are expecting there to be a dramatic run on the banks, and the Chinese people to take to the streets and overthrow the Chinese Communist Party, and become a full-blown democracy like Taiwan, Japan or South Korea, you are very likely to be disappointed.
所以,如果你是期待一次强烈的bank run(自行百度啥是bank run),然后中国人民上街推翻TG,中国大陆变成与台湾,日本韩国一样的政体,那么你要失望了。
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Nikhil Ambhorkar, Self studied Finance.
Written Sep 26


Is China facing a Banking crisis?
中国是在面临一个银行危机吗?
Yes.

Is it facing a full blown Banking crisis?
中国正在面临一个全面性的银行危机吗?
No.

Combined debt of China is almost 300% of its GDP. But the the categorized in 4 parts as it is shown in the image with the question too.
中国的总债务大概是GDP的300%。但是分在了如图所示的4个领域内。
The corporate debt has the lion's portion of the total debt. The household debt and non corporate debt are nothing to worry about because it is less many other developed countries and has some room to grow.
公司债务在总债务中占了大头。个人债务和非公司债务根本没啥可担心的因为这些比大多数发达国家还要低所以还有增长的空间。
Government Debt is not too big when compared to standards set by many global institutions like IMF, World Bank, etc.
政府债务以多数国际组织,例如世行和IMF,设定得标准来看其实不高。
The only major concern which is of a serious magnitude is the corporate debt. This is also reiterated by many economists.
最主要的关注点就是公司债务了。许多经济学家都重申了这点无数次了。
Now the problem with China is that data that comes out of major Chinese institutions is murky so their are many different types of estimates by many different institutions but the common theme in it is corporate debt and its size.
中国最大的问题就是中国国内组织公布的数据来源不清晰所以不同的国际组织对中国经济的实际情况估算会不一样。但所有组织最关心的都是中国的公司债务与其规模。
Corporate debt consists of debt owned by state owned corporations and private corporations. Private corporations in China are generally crowded out by the state owned corporations because of connections and political agenda.
公司债务又分成了国企和私企的债务。中国私企大多数收到国企排挤,这是有政体造成的。
Many state owned corporations have invested into unproductive projects as a result of excess boost given by government after 2008 to prop up the economy. This has resulted in a huge amount of NPAs. So, in all the major problem is state owned corporations piling up huge amount of debt. To solve this problem, the government tried to convert the debt into shares which the bank owns and can recover money through profit dividends but this was one of the causes for last year's stock market crash.
在08年过度的经济刺激政策下,很多国企在许多无效益项目上投了许多钱。这造成了大量的无效能资产。所以,最大的问题是国企堆积了大量债务。为了解决这个问题,政府正在尝试将国企的债务转化为股份,那么银行就能将债务转化为红利而最终将债务收回了。但这造成了上年的股灾.....
Hence, it is a big crisis but not the one government cannot handle with so much trade surplus and forex reserves. But actions are definitely needed to stop it from growing into a bigger problem.
所以,这是一个危机但仍然是政府能控制的,毕竟中国政府有大量贸易顺差和外汇储备。但是仍然需要实际行动来防止事态的扩展。
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